The American Mafia

Boss of Bosses

The "boss of bosses" was an institution of the American Mafia between the early 1900s and 1931. Under the system, one Mafia chieftain - typically the leader of the largest and wealthiest crime family - was elected to serve as supreme arbiter of inter-family disputes. The system overlooked the fact these bosses were typically power-hungry and greedy. The reigning boss of bosses typically spent much of his energy enriching himself and undermining rivals.

In practice, the boss of bosses was something more than a judge or mediator. From the first known occupant of the office, Giuseppe Morello, there is evidence that the boss of bosses was actively engaged in the activities of local crime families across the country. Several holders of the title passed death sentences against rivals and inserted their own loyal followers into crime families to act as spies and/or enforcers. While it appears that a vote of underworld bosses or the assembled Mafia membership was necessary in order for the boss of bosses to act outside of his official dispute-resolution role, such votes were generally no more than formalities. With the boss of bosses commanding the strongest and most influential Mafia family, it would have been suicidal to vote against him.

It also proved to be suicidal to assume the boss of bosses responsibilities. Replacement of the position holder by democratic means was a virtual impossibility. Betrayal and assassination proved to be the most effective means of changing the regime.

Every official boss of bosses known to us was based in New York City and every one died a violent death. Gaspare Messina of Boston and Don Sebastiano of New York were elected to serve only on a temporary basis. Neither of them appear to have been murdered.


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Giuseppe Morello

c 1900 - Giuseppe Morello (Born Corleone, Sicily, May 2, 1867. Killed New York City, Aug. 15, 1930). Known as "Piddu" or "Clutch Hand" (in erroneous reports as "Peter"), Morello and his brother-in-law Ignazio Lupo led a gang of extortionists and counterfeiters in Italian East Harlem, Manhattan's Lower East Side and Brooklyn. With the support of Sicilian/American Mafiosi like Vito Cascioferro and Pasquale Enea and with strong connections to Mafia organizations in New Orleans and Chicago, Morello was recognized as boss of bosses of the U.S. Mafia, perhaps the first man to hold that title. (Some have argued that Nicola Taranto and perhaps Candelaro Bettini, leaders of late 19th Century Sicilian-American counterfeiting rings, held the boss of bosses title earlier than Morello.) Morello was imprisoned in 1910 for counterfeiting. His organization subsequently broke down into what later became the Genovese (based in Manhattan), Gambino (Brooklyn, Bronx) and Lucchese (Bronx) Crime Families.

c 1910 - Sebastiano DiGaetano was identified by an informant to the U.S. Secret Service as a key administrative figure over the New York Mafia during the first years of Morello's imprisonment. It is possible that he temporarily held the boss of bosses title until Morello-Lupo legal appeals failed and a new election could be held. DiGaetano appears to have been leader of the Brooklyn-based organization that later became the Bonanno Crime Family. In March of 1912, DiGaetano reportedly "lost his nerve." He was replaced as crime family boss by Nicola Schiro and as boss of bosses by the election of Salvatore "Toto" D'Aquila.

c 1912 - Salvatore D'Aquila (Born Palermo c. 1873. Killed New York City, Oct. 10, 1928). Known to his underworld associates as "Toto," Palermo-born D'Aquila rose up through the ranks of the Morello Mafia. Originally based in the Bronx, and later a Mafia leader in Brooklyn, he secured the loyalty of a number of key pieces of the old Morello organization when it became clear that legal appeals by Morello and Lupo would not win them their freedom. D'Aquila was elected the new boss of bosses of the American Mafia, but he was unable to hold in line the various factions of the old Morello organization. He lost control of East Harlem and lower Manhattan. In an effort to increase his influence, D'Aquila is known to have inserted spies into various crime families across the country. After Morello's release from prison (and likely speculation over whether he should be returned to his old position), D'Aquila created a schism in the New York Mafia by passing a death sentence against Morello and his loyalists. Though the D'Aquila crime family is often said to be based in Brooklyn, the powerbases of D'Aquila and his two immediate successors actually were in the Bronx. Around 1925, D'Aquila left Brooklyn to return to his Bronx roots.

Joe the Boss Masseria

1928 - Giuseppe Masseria (Born Menfi, Sicily, Jan. 17, 1886. Killed Brooklyn, April 15, 1931). "Joe the Boss" Masseria, member of a lower Manhattan burglary ring, became standard-bearer for the remnants of the Morello-Terranova organization around 1922. A non-traditional Mafioso, Masseria welcomed many Neapolitans into his criminal organization. By the mid-1920s, Masseria was dominant in New York City. Underworld forces in New York, Chicago, Detroit and Cleveland supported Joe the Boss in his struggle against Salvatore D'Aquila and his many allies. Masseria officially became boss of bosses after D'Aquila's murder in 1928. The 1928 convention of Mafiosi in Cleveland, where much of Masseria's family resided, was likely held as a coronation of Masseria as the new supreme leader of the American Mafia. Among Masseria's chief advisers were former boss of bosses Giuseppe Morello and Saverio Pollaccia.

Gaspare Messina.

1930 - Gaspare Messina (Born Salemi, Sicily, Aug. 7, 1879. Died June 1957.). Messina appears to have entered the U.S. through New York City and to have lived in Brooklyn for a time before moving on to Boston. A son Salvatore was born in Brooklyn to Messina and his wife Francesca Riggio Messina in January of 1911. He moved to Boston before 1918 (perhaps as one of the D'Aquila men inserted into crime families across the country - though he later showed considerable independence from D'Aquila) and served as a Boston-based Mafia boss through much of the Prohibition Era. A dispute with Castellammarese Mafiosi in New York, Buffalo and the Midwest cost Giuseppe Masseria the confidence of the American Mafia membership. While the Mafia attempted to resolve the problem, Messina served as temporary boss of bosses. It is possible that Messina was no longer a boss of the Mafia in the Boston area and that he resided in New York City during his brief reign as temporary boss of bosses.

Tom Hunt approximation of Maranzano portrait.

1931 - Salvatore Maranzano (Born Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily, c. 1886. Killed New York City, Sept. 10, 1931). Beginning in the late 1920s, Maranzano led a Castellammarese Mafia insurrection against boss of bosses Giuseppe Masseria. Though there is no evidence that Maranzano was ever officially appointed to any rank higher than soldier within the Schiro clan, he became the New York City war leader of the Castellammarese in the U.S. and many other Mafiosi who opposed the tyrannical reign of Giuseppe Masseria, including D'Aquila loyalists from the Mineo Crime Family (Gambino). After the April 1931 assassination of Masseria, Salvatore Maranzano secured for himself the designation of boss of all bosses in the American Mafia. He made repeated demands of tribute from other Mafia families and plotted against those he considered his rivals. After Maranzano's September 1931 murder, the American Mafia decided to do away with the boss of bosses designation in favor of a dispute-arbitrating Commission.


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